Sociophonetics Book Cover

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Here are several sets of links to useful sociophonetics resources. Many more sociophonetically relevant resources are online than we can catalogue and more resources appear regularly, so please consider this page just a starter.

Also please note that website locations can change. If any of the links do not work, you may have success searching the internet for the project or webpage by name. We will update this site from time to time, but we cannot guarantee that the linked to resources will remain active.

Data discussed in the book

  • Vowels in America (VIA) Project – see Fridland’s website,
    We provide some sample files from Vowels in America Project on the Audio and figures.php'>Figures pages of this website.
  • Corpus of Regional African American Language (CORAAL)
    All of CORAAL is freely downloadable from its website, and accessible through its online interface at The book provides a couple of TinyURLs that link directly to files discussed in the book, but you can browse or search the entire corpus directly from its website.

  • Also mentioned in the book:
    • Samples of Arthur the Rat passage from DARE, read by speakers of different US dialects, can be accessed on the DARE website at
    • The Atlas of North American English (ANAE) used to have an interactive website, at The site is down at the time of publication, but hopefully it will return. Vowel formant measurements from the ANAE have been used by a number of projects and may be available online as well.
    • The Sociolinguistic Archive and Analysis Project (SLAAP) is a large archive housing a number of sociolinguistic data collections, at SLAAP’s software also includes a range of analysis tools and was the basis of Kendall’s (2009, 2013) corpus sociophonetic studies of speech rate and pause related phenomena. SLAAP requires a user account to access and permissions from the researchers in charge of its different recording collections, but many collections can be shared for research or educational purposes. Many of SLAAP’s collections are indexed in OLAC.
    • Peterson & Barney's (1952) vowel formant data are available through several channels. The easiest way to obtain these data is through Praat (see Also see the Figures page for the code and data to recreate our plots of the Peterson & Barney data.

The International Phonetic Alphabet

Sociophonetic-related software and online tools

  • AutoVOT -
    Software for the automatic measurement of voice onset time (VOT). (Keshet et al. 2014)
  • DARLA: Dartmouth Linguistic Automation
    A suite of vowel formant extraction tools tailored to research questions in sociophonetics. (Reddy & Stanford 2015)
  • FAVE -
    The most widely used tool for automated vowel extraction from transcribed speech. Note that the system is trained on American English; despite that it is used widely for other languages and varieties of English, one should make sure it works appropriately before trusting its results for other language varieties. (Rosenfelder et al. 2014)
  • ISCAN (and associated software) –
    The main software being developed as a part of the Speech across Dialects of English (SPADE) project, which seeks to develop innovative and user-friendly software to facilitate large-scale, integrated speech corpus analysis across many datasets together. (McAuliffe et al. 2019)
  • LaBB-CAT (formely ONZE Miner) –
    LaBB-CAT is a browser-based tool that stores audio or video recordings, text transcripts, and other annotations, and facilitates processing of the files. LaBB-CAT was initially designed as a part of the Origins of New Zealand English (ONZE) project (see and has been used extensively in projects related to ONZE. While LaBB-CAT is not included in our list of forced alignment systems below, LaBB-CAT includes forced alignment routines. (Fromont & Hay 2012)
  • NORM: The Online Vowel Normalization and Plotting Suite
    NORM is a web-based interface to the vowels.R package for the R programming language, which is designed to aid in the manipulation, normalization, and plotting of vowel formant data. Its easy to use web-interface is a good starting place for plotting and normalizing vowel data. (Thomas & Kendall 2009)
  • Praat -
    Praat is the main software used for acoustic (and other) phonetic analysis currently. We discuss it quite a bit in the book and provide some screenshots of Praat’s Editor window. (Boersma & Weenink 2020)
  • Praat resources and scripts
  • R programming language and environment
    R has become one of the main tools used by linguists in recent years and this is especially true in sociophonetics. R was used to generate all of the figures for the book. A number of packages or other resources are available for R that are specifically designed for sociophonetic or phonetic purposes.
  • R packages & other scripts
  • Snack Sound Toolkit -
    Software for several platforms, including Tcl/Tk and Python (and Ruby, for sound manipulation and analysis. (Sjölander 2004)
    A speech analysis, modification, and synthesis system. (Kawahara 2008)
  • VoiceSauce -
    A Matlab application from UCLA which provides automated voice measurements. (Shue et al. 2011)
  • Vowel Overlap Indication Software (VOIS3D) Project
    Software to calculate and visualize vowel distributional overlap. (Wassink 2006)

Forced-alignment software

  • Montreal Forced Aligner (MFA) -
    A very popular and accurate forced alignment system at the time of the book’s publication. Unlike most other forced alignment systems, MFA uses Kaldi as its back-end (see below). MFA can be trained and used on any language. (McAuliffe et al. 2017)
  • FAVE-Align -
    A popular forced aligner; a part of the larger FAVE system. (Rosenfelder et al. 2014)
  • ProsodyLab Aligner -
    A forced alignment system that can be trained and run on any language. (Gorman et al. 2011)
  • The Munich Automatic Speech Segmentation System (MAUS) - a href=''>
    A robust system for forced alignment, supporting a number of languages and also with a web-interface. (Kisler et al. 2012)
  • P2FA -
    The Penn Phonetics Lab Forced Aligner was the first widely used forced alignment system for sociophonetic work. Its code has been reused in many more recent systems. We provide a link to its original website, but Google searches for this software will find various later versions and derivatives. (Yuan & Liberman 2008)

  • Related to forced alignment:

Software for running speech experiments

Additional online sources for speech recordings

     © Tyler Kendall & Valerie Fridland, Last Mod: January 25, 2023